(1) The action mechanism of the application of water retention agent in meat products
As a kind of weak acid with high ionic strength, phosphate can increase the pH value and ionic strength of meat products, making it higher than the isoelectric point PI of protein, which is conducive to myofibrin (mainly including myosin and actin, etc.), especially the dissolution of myosin, so as to improve the water retention of meat.
Phosphate can chelate divalent calcium ions, make the muscle fiber structure in the meat tend to be loose, soluble in more water, reduce the loss of raw juice during processing, increase water retention.
In addition, phosphate can also make protein polymers disappear and latex distribution more uniform, complexing of the iron ions in the meat and then inhibit the oxidation to reduce the smell of meat, meat quality and flavor improved.
(2) The action mechanism of the application of water retention agent in dairy products
Similar to its application in meat products, as a weak acid with high ionic strength, adding it into dairy products can play a buffering and pH stabilizing role and improve ionic strength.The increase of pH causes the pH of the solution to deviate from the isoelectric point PI of the protein. On the one hand, it increases the interaction between the protein and water molecules.On the other hand, it repels protein chains, makes more water soluble, increases water retention and emulsification, and at the same time adjusts the ph of the solution to stabilize the acidity of the solution.The appropriate increase of ionic strength can lead to salt dissolution and increase the solubility of protein.Its anion effect can make the hydrosol of protein form a kind of film on the fat ball, so that the fat can disperse in the water more effectively, effectively prevent the separation of casein from fat and water, stabilize the emulsification system, and enhance the ability of casein to bind water.
(3) The application mechanism of water retention agent in starchy foods such as bread
During the cooling and storage of starchy foods such as bread and steamed bread, part of the water will be squeezed out of the food, resulting in the phenomenon of aging away from the water, sometimes called dehydration and shrinkage. As a result, starchy foods such as steamed bread will become hard and deteriorate in taste.Therefore, water retention agents were added to improve the water retention of starch foods.The mechanism may be as follows: as the weak phosphate with high ionic strength ACTS on the gluten protein, which increases the hydration of the protein;Nonphosphate water retention agents are added to the expanded starch granules, increasing their ability to bind to water.
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